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关键词:2015年  诺贝尔经济学奖  安格斯·迪顿  学术成果

北京时间1012日,瑞典皇家科学院宣布,普林斯顿大学教授、微观经济家安格斯?迪顿(angus stewart deaton)因在消费、贫穷与福利方面的研究贡献获得2015年诺贝尔经济学奖。

瑞典皇家科学院在声明中称:要设计促进社会福利、减少贫困的经济政策,我们必须首先理解个人的消费选择。没有人比安格斯·迪顿更多的增强了我们对此的理解。通过连接详细的个人选择和聚合结果,他的研究改变了微观经济学、宏观经济学和发展经济学。

安格斯·迪顿,出生于19451019日,微观经济学家,曾就读于爱丁堡fettes学院,并在剑桥大学获得其学士、硕士和博士学位。

迪顿曾是英国布里斯托尔大学(university of bristol)的经济学教授,1983年转到普林斯顿大学,目前,他是伍德罗·威尔逊学院德怀特·d·艾森豪威尔国际事务教授和普林斯顿大学经济系经济学和国际事务教授。(dwight d. eisenhower professor of economics and international affairs at the woodrow wilson school of public and international affairs and the economics department at princeton university.

他还是美国艺术与科学协会成员,计量经济学协会成员,世界银行首席经济学家咨询委员会成员、盖洛普(gallup)组织高级研究员,2014年入选美国哲学学会(the american philosophical society),20154月入选美国科学院(national academy of sciences)。此前,他曾是世界银行研究审核委员会主席(2005-2006)、国际货币经济组织华盛顿访问学者(200610月)、哈佛大学经济系顾问团主席(200912月)、美国经济学会主席(2009)。

迪顿因为与john muellbauer共同开发的近理想需求体系而为众人所知。他的主要著作包括:《经济学与消费者行为》,剑桥大学出版社;《了解消费》,牛津大学clarendon出版社;《家庭调查分析:发展政策的微观经济方法》,约翰霍普金斯大学出版社;《伟大的印度贫困辩论》。

他是1978年该协会首届弗里希奖(society's frisch medal)的获得者、bbva基金会经济、金融与管理知识前沿奖(bbva foundation frontiers of knowledge award)获得者。

迪顿今年独享总额为800万瑞典克朗(约合111万美元)的奖金,他也是进入新千年以来,既菲尔普斯(edmund phelps)、克鲁格曼(paul krugman)和去年得主梯若尔(jean tirole)之后,第三位独享经济学奖的得主。

迪顿的主要学术观点

金邵鹏在“中国经济学教育科研网”发表的文章中介绍迪顿的主要学术成果。

在学术界,迪顿最令人关注的文章是1980年与john muellbauer合作发表在《美国经济评论》上的《近乎完美的需求系统模型》(an almost ideal demand system)一文。在这篇文章中,两位研究者以柯布-道格拉斯、斯通和高曼的传统为基础,引入了一个与偏好最大化一致的需求等式的实践系统,该系统是根据需求理论推导出来的,可以用来描述居民对农产品的消费行为,估计居民在一定的可消费支出水平、通货膨胀水平以及价格下对农产品的需求量。在过去的三十多年里,这篇文章被引用高达4000多次。

在二十世纪九十年代前后,迪顿发表若干论文,证明主流消费理论无法解释二者之间的实际关系。迪顿认为,应综合研究个体消费如何随个体收入而变化,其变化关系与整体数据大不相同。迪顿的研究表明,分析个体数据是我们理解整体数据的关键,而迪顿的研究方法也日渐为宏观经济学所广泛接受。

迪顿最新研究强调,衡量单个家庭消费水平的可靠方法可用于揭示经济发展背后的规律。在横向和纵向研究贫穷时,迪顿的研究体现出了传统方法所不具有的重要价值。迪顿还举例阐释了如何利用家庭消费数据揭示收入与福利之间的关系,以及家庭内部性别歧视的程度。迪顿对家庭消费数据的研究有助于推动发展经济学从理论领域向实用领域转变,前者基于整体数据,后者基于个体数据。

以上,便是迪顿所专注的微观发展经济学。过去一些年,在pranab bardhant. n. srinivasan、迪顿、mark rosenzweigabhijit banerjeeesther duflo等的推动下,发展经济学有了新的面貌,其研究成为经济学的主流和前沿。在这一进程中,许多经济学家将自己的思想和方法融入到发展经济学框架中。

迪顿等人倾向于强调微观数据。迪顿获奖后,西南财经大学经济与管理研究院院长甘犁在微博中写道:“迪顿主要研究发展中国家家庭的消费和储蓄行为,他的工作都是基于家庭微观数据。学术界对中国家庭经济行为的研究,包括中国家庭储蓄高居不下的原因的研究,因为微观数据的欠缺,严重不足。希望他的获奖,能够引起大家对微观数据的收集和公开的重视。中国家庭金融调查正在进行这方面的努力。”

而另外一些学者主要通过实验方法推进前沿研究,比如esther duflo等人。对此,迪顿似乎不以为然。2008年,他受邀到伦敦政治经济学院主讲当年的凯恩斯讲座,在题为《发展的工具》(instruments of development)的演讲中,他全面质疑了“随机对照试验”(randomized control trials)能否为贫困问题提供任何透彻的答案。他认为,大量的随机对照试验研究充其量只回答了“某某政策是否有用”,而没有回答“为什么有用”;只要我们没有搞清楚“为什么”, 随机对照试验的所有洞察都将是肤浅的。(文/金邵鹏)

发展中国家怎么判断贫困?怎么衡量经济水平?

据“果壳网”的介绍,近年来,迪顿的研究主要关注发展中国家的消费和贫困。在这个领域他做出了许多贡献:指出消费数据比收入数据更可靠、更有用;提出了更有效的数据采集方式;如何消除当地物价差异影响;如何计算难以直接观察的商品和服务;如何协调个人数据和家庭数据的差异;如何比较不同国家的福利,等等。80年代,国家经济发展还主要是理论的推算;在迪顿等人的大力推动下,今天发展经济学已经是一门蓬勃发展的实验学科了。

比如,长期以来经济学家研究了一个国家可能陷入的贫困怪圈:低收入的人吃不饱,就不能正常工作,于是收入始终上不去。如果对这些国家进行援助,能让贫困居民吃饱肚子,从而打破怪圈吗?迪顿的研究发现,收入增加之后人们果然吃得更多了——且慢,营养不良并不足以解释他们为啥低收入。事实上这并不是一个怪圈,只是一条线:穷导致吃不饱,但并不是吃不饱导致穷。

再比如,许多发展中国家都有明显的重男轻女现象,但是到底是怎么个歧视法呢?一个明显的猜想是,女儿得到的资源比儿子少。但是这个猜想很难验证:你不可能每天和一家人坐在一起看看是不是饭桌上的肉都给了儿子,就算你真的去了,他们可能因为有外人在看就不好意思公然歧视。迪顿想出了一个巧妙的办法:看看当一家人有了孩子之后,成年人才有的那些消费(比如成人衣物、烟草、酒精)降低了多少,是有儿子降的多还是有女儿降的多。他发现,正常情况下男女没有明显差异——但是,一到家境不好、遭遇逆境的时候,女儿就要遭受明显的歧视。

迪顿:对外援助真的有用吗?

人文经济学会介绍,迪顿认为政府无效是贫困主要原因。在2013年的一篇文章里,他称国家能力的缺失——即无法提供富国人民习以为常的服务和保护是贫困和落魄的主要原因之一。迪顿在文章中反对富国对贫国的直接援助,认为援助会破坏穷人最需要的东西,即本地国家能力的发展,而穷国最需要建立起一个有效政府。文章内容如下:

在苏格兰,我从小就认为警察是朋友,需要时可以求助。19岁时我第一次来到美国时,我向一名正在时代广场疏导交通的纽约市警察询问最近的邮局怎么走,他爆出一连串粗口,令我愕然。此后我一直处于懵懂状态,把我老板的急件丢进了垃圾箱——我觉得它和邮筒长得一模一样。

欧洲人对他们的政府的看法大多比美国人更加积极,对后者来说,联邦、州和地方政客的失败和不得人心乃是家常便饭。但美国各级政府征收税收,然后反过来提供美国人的生活离不开的服务。

与许多富裕国家的公民一样,美国人认为法律和监督制度、公立学校、针对老年人的卫生和社会保障、道路、国防和外交、以及国家队研究(特别是医学方面)的重金投入是理所当然的。当然,并非所有这些服务都能尽如人意,也不是所有人都能得到平等对待;但在绝大多数情况下人们还是照章纳税,如果花钱的方式令一些人感到不爽,就会引起激烈的公共争论,而定期的选举也使人们得以改变轻重缓急。

所有这些可以说都是不言自明的,至少对有着高效政府的富裕国家居民来说是如此。但世界上大部分人口没有这么幸运。

在非洲和亚洲的许多地方,国家欠缺收税或提供服务的能力。政府和人民之间的契约在穷国通常根本不存在——在富国也不完美。纽约警察只是有些不礼貌(至少还在忙于提供服务);而在世界上很多地方,警察骑在他们应该保护的人民头上作威作福,从人民身上讹钱,或是代表权力机关把人民抓起来。

即使在印度这样的中等收入国家,公立学校和公立医院也频频出现旷工(并且不会受到惩罚)。私人医生给人们(认为自己)想要的--注射、打点滴和抗生素--但国家并不监管他们,许多从业者根本没有资质。

放眼发展中世界,儿童因为投胎到了错误的国家而死去——不是因为不可治愈的疑难杂症,而是我们在一百年前就知道如何处理的常见儿童疾病。只要国家无法提供常规母婴医疗,这些儿童就会继续死去。

类似地,如果政府无能,监管和强制执行就不能有效运行,企业也就难以经营。没有运转良好的民事法庭,就不能保证创新企业家能从他们的新思想中得到奖赏。

放眼全球,国家能力的缺失——即无法提供富国人民习以为常的服务和保护--是贫困和落魄的主要原因之一。没有国家与积极活跃的公民的有效互动,就很难形成战胜全球贫困所需要的增长。

不幸的是,目前富国在把事情弄得更糟。外国援助——富国对穷国的转移支付——值得称道,特别是在医疗领域,挽救了无数人的生命。但外国援助也破坏了本地国家能力的发展。

此点特别明显的是政府直接收到援助并且援助流相对财政支出较大(通常相当于一大半)的国家(大部分是非洲国家)。这些政府不需要与公民达成契约,不需要议会,也不需要征税系统。如果说它们需要对谁负责,那就是赞助国;但即使这一点在实际中也不可行,因为赞助国受到本国公民的压力(他们帮助穷人的愿望无可指摘),穷国政府需要多少,它们就得拿出多少,甚至还会多拿出些。

绕过政府、直接把援助给穷人怎么样?显然,直接结果会好一点,特别是对政府间援助很少能到达穷人手中的国家来说。而只要极少的钱——富裕国家每个成年人每天拿出15美分即可——就能让所有人都告别每天1美元的极端贫困线。

但这并不是解决办法。穷人需要政府带给他们更好的生活;绕过政府短期可能改善现状,但不能解决根本问题。穷国不可能永远指望健康服务来自外国。援助会破坏穷人最需要的东西:与他们携手共进创造今天和明天的有效的政府。

有一件事我们可以做,那就是鼓励我们自身的政府不要再做让穷国更难战胜贫困的事情。减少援助就是其中之一,其他还包括遏制军火贸易、改善富国贸易和补贴政策、提供与援助无关的技术顾问、开发不影响富人的疾病的更好的药物等。我们无法通过让已经很弱的政府变得更弱帮到穷人。

迪顿:如何逃离不平等?

《华尔街见闻》网站介绍,两年前,迪顿出版了一本名为《逃离不平等:健康、财富和不平等的起源》的书。《纽约时报》对此书做出以下书评:

普林斯顿大学广受尊敬的教授迪顿不涩于指出当今世界的问题——无论这是问题是富裕国家的收入不平等,还是中国和美国的健康问题,或是非洲的艾滋病问题。书中的大部分都围绕着这些问题和潜在的w66利来的解决方案。不过,迪顿的核心观点非常的正面,几乎很光辉。在最有意义的指标上——我们活得多久、多健康和多快乐——我们的生活从没有比今天更好。与之同样重要的是,我们的生活在不断进步。

在书中,安格斯·迪顿讨论了以下问题:不平等导致了哪些问题?不平等到底是有益发展还是有害发展?我们所谈论的各种不平等中,哪些是至关重要的?让少数人先富起来,是否对社会有好处?如果没有好处,那让一部分人先富起来的规则和制度是否正确?

安格斯·迪顿在书中表示,整个资本主义发展史可以理解为“大逃亡”的历史,借市场之力,发达国家率先逃离了贫困、疾病和不幸,而许多发展中国家仍在“大逃亡”的道路上。

前现代社会人均寿命仅30-40岁,他们一生中都有挨饿的经历,其中80%的人属赤贫阶层。这其中,有制度因素、科技因素、商业因素、文化因素等,值得注意的是,在今天,有的发展中国家已改变了这个局面,有的却依然如故。

其实只要推广廉价的抗生素,就能延长人类的平均寿命,可仅靠市场够吗?

现代人一生下来就被注射了各种免疫针,这是作为前提接受的,我们并没选择过,换言之,我们得到这些基础性的东西,因为有政府保障,而不是因为有市场。这恰好说明:逃离贫困,政府有责。

现代化不只是市场的成长史,也是公权力的成长史,只有它不断担负起新的责任,传统社会才有了“逃离”的条件。

以下为《逃离不平等:健康、财富和不平等的起源》一书书摘:

社会进步的动力何在?

如果我们的祖先有足够的想象力,他们肯定会喜欢我们如今拥有的东西。这一点毫无疑问。与此同时,我们也毫无理由认为,过去的父母们会对子女夭折的现象熟视无睹。如果你不同意这个观点(对于此事,实际上有很多不同观点),可以去读读珍妮特·布朗的书。她在书中详细描述了查尔斯·达尔文在眼睁睁看着两个孩子死去时的痛苦。逃离苦难是人之天性,但是这种欲求却经常无法实现。

新的知识、新的发明、新的行为方式是社会进步的关键所在。有时,灵感常常源于那些孤独的、幻想着弄出点前所未有的东西的发明家们,但是更多的时候,创新不过是其他东西的副产品。比如,识字能力的普及是因为新教徒必须读《圣经》。

同样更为常见的是,社会经济环境会导致新的东西被创造出来以满足需求。帝国时代的繁盛使得英国人的工资水平提高,而高工资加上英国丰富的煤矿资源,为发明家和工厂主提供了发明创造的动力,而发明创造是工业革命的引擎。英国的启蒙运动,以其对自我完善的不懈追求,为即将出现的发明创造提供了肥沃的智力土壤。19世纪的霍乱刺激了细菌致病理论研究取得重大突破。而今天,受到各方面大力支持的艾滋病研究,解开了病毒的秘密并研制出了新的药物。尽管这些药物还不能治愈艾滋病,但它们已经大大延长了被感染者的寿命。当然,世界上还有很多问题依靠灵感是解决不了的,而强烈的需求和动机也未能激发出神奇的,或者哪怕是一般的w66利来的解决方案。比如疟疾已经使人类遭遇了成千上万年的痛苦,甚至可以说它贯穿了人类历史始终,但直到今天我们也没有彻底有效的预防或者治疗方案。需求或许是发明之母,但是没有什么能保证有需求就必然有发明。

不平等也在影响发明创造的进程。这种影响有时候是正面的,有时候则相反。不幸人群所遭受的痛苦,会推动人们去寻找新的可以填补贫富差距这条鸿沟的方法。这是因为,既然有的人可以免于不幸,那么不幸本身就不应存在。口服补液疗法的发现就是一个佳例。20 世纪70 年代,口服补液疗法在孟加拉的难民营中被发现。因为这种廉价而又易制的方法,数百万遭受痢疾折磨的儿童得以避免脱水以及可能引发的死亡。

不平等也会阻碍发明创造。新发明和创新的生产方式会对既得利益者造成严重冲击。经济学家认为,创新的时代会掀起创造性破坏的浪潮,新的生产方法会横扫旧的方法,从而毁灭那些依靠旧秩序生存的人和他们的生活。今日的全球化已经出现了此种情势。从国外进口更便宜的商品如同一种新的制造商品的方式,而那些在国内生产这些商品的人则大难临头。他们当中的一部分人拥有强势的政治地位,会因为利益受损或者因担心利益受损,而从法律上禁止新事物或者至少延缓它们的出现。中国的皇帝因为担心商人会威胁到他的权力,而于1430 年禁止了海上航行。结果,郑和下西洋就变成了一次绝唱,而未能成为崭新的开始。无独有偶,奥地利的皇帝弗朗西斯一世禁止铁路修建,其理由只是担忧铁路会输入革命,威胁王权。

为何要重视不平等?

不平等会促进发展,亦可能阻碍发展。但是不平等本身是否也值得重视?哲学家兼经济学家阿马蒂亚·森曾说,即便是那些相信社会应存在某种形式的平等的人,也会对应实现何种平等而各怀己见。当然并不是所有人都会同意他的观点。部分经济学家和哲学家就争论称,收入的不平等是不合理的,除非是为了实现某些更重要的目标。比如,若是政府让所有公民的收入都变得一样,那么人们的工作积极性就会大幅降低,这样的结果是,最穷的一部分人可能会变得比那些存在收入不平等地区的穷人还穷。与对收入平等的重视不同,另外一些学者则强调机会平等。但实际上关于何为机会平等,依旧众说纷纭。还有人强调比例公平:每个人得到的,应该和他的付出成正比。按照这种观点,则通过富人与穷人之间的收入再分配来实现的收入平等,就不合理。

在本书中,我会将讨论的重点放在以下方面:不平等导致了哪些问题?不平等到底是有益于发展还是有害于发展?我们所谈论的各种不平等中,哪些是至关重要的?让少数人先富起来,是否对社会有好处?如果没有好处,那让一部分人先富起来的规则和制度是否正确?富人会不会限制穷人对社会运行管理的影响力,以保证自己的利益?健康不平等是否和收入不平等有相似之处,或者二者是否存在某些差别?这些不平等真的总是不公正的吗,还是它们会带来一种更高层次的善?

 

延伸阅读:陈建东 王皊皊:安格斯·迪顿对当代经济学的学术贡献,《经济学动态》2013年第1

 

安格斯·迪顿主要学术论著(来源:普林斯顿大学安格斯·迪顿个人w66利来主页):

 

2015

aghion, p, u akcigit, a deaton, and a roulet. 2015. “creative destruction and subjective well-being”.

deaton, angus. 2015. “on tyrannical experts and expert tyrants.” the review of austrian economics .

case, a, and a deaton. 2015. “suicide, age, and wellbeing: an empirical investigation.” nber working paper , no. 21279.

deaton, a, and r tortora. 2015. “people in sub-saharan africa rate their health and health care among the lowest in the world.” health affairs 34 3: 1-9.

2014

steptoe, andrew, angus deaton, and arthur a stone. 2014. “subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.” the lancet 385 9968: 640-648.

deaton, a, and a stone. 2014. “grandpa and the snapper: the wellbeing of the elderly who live with children.” in discoveries in the economics of aging . chicago: university of chicago press.

deaton, a, and b aten. 2014. “trying to understand the ppps in icp 2011: why are the results so different?.” nber working paper no. 20244 revised march 2015.

deaton, a, and a stone. 2014. “evaluative and hedonic wellbeing among those with and without children at home.” proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the united states of america 111 4: 1328-1333.

2013

deaton, a, and a stone. 2013. “do context effects limit the usefulness of self-reported wellbeing measures?.” research program in development studies working paper #288.

deaton, a. 2013. “reshaping the world: the 2005 round of the international comparison program.” in measuring the size of the world economy: the framework, methodology, and results from the international comparison program . washington, dc: world bank.

coffey, d, a deaton, j dréze, d spears, and a tarozzi. 2013. “stunting among children: facts and implications.” economic and political weekly 48 34: 68-70.

deaton, a, and a stone. 2013. “two happiness puzzles.” american economic review: papers & proceedings 103 3: 591-597.

deaton, a. 2013. “what does the empirical evidence tell us about the injustice of health inequalities?.” in inequalities in health: concepts, measures and ethics nir eyal, samia hurst, ole frithof norheim, and daniel wikler, editors . oxford, uk : oxford university press.

the great escape: health, wealth, and the origins of inequality

deaton, a. 2013.the great escape: health, wealth, and the origins of inequality. princeton: princeton university press. available at amazon

2012

deaton, a. 2012. “the financial crisis and the well-being of america.” in investigations in the economics of aging . chicago, il : university of chicago press.

deaton, a. 2012. “the financial crisis and the well-being of americans.” oxford economic papers 64 1: 1-26.

2011

deaton, angus, and olivier dupriez. 2011. “spatial price differences within large countries”.

deaton, a. 2011. “aging, religion and health.” in explorations in the economics of aging. chicago : university of chicago press .

deaton, a, and o dupriez. 2011. “purchasing power parity exchange rates for the global poor.” american economic journal: applied 3: 137-166.

2010

deaton, a, j fortson, and r tortora. 2010. “life evaluation, hiv/aids, and death in africa.” in international differences in well-being . oxford, uk : oxford university press.

deaton, a. 2010. “instruments, randomization, and learning about development.” journal of economic literature 48: 424-455.

stone, a, j schwartz, j broderick, and a deaton. 2010. “a snapshot of the age of distribution of psychological well-being in the united states.” proceedings of the national academy of sciences 107 22: 9985-9990.

deaton, a, and j dréze. 2010. “from calorie fundamentalism to cereal accounting.” economic and political weekly 45 47: 87-92.

kahneman, d, and a deaton. 2010. “high income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being.” proceedings of the national academy of sciences 107 38: 16489-16493.

deaton, a. 2010. “measuring development: different data, different conclusions?.” in measure for measure: how well do we manage development.

deaton, a, and j dréze. 2010. “nutrition, poverty and calorie fundamentalism: response to utsa patnaik.” economic and political weekly 45 14: 78-80.

deaton, a. 2010. “price indexes, inequality, and the measurement of world poverty.” american economic review 100 1: 5-34.

deaton, a. 2010. “understanding the mechanisms of economic development.” journal of economic perspectives 24 3: 3-16.

deaton, a, and a heston. 2010. “understanding ppps and ppp-based national accounts.” american economic journal: macroeconomics 2 4: 1-35.

2009

deaton, a, c bozzoli, and c quintana-domeque. 2009. “adult height and childhood disease.” demography 46 4: 647-669.

deaton, a, and j dréze. 2009. “food and nutrition in india: facts and interpretations.” economic and political weekly 44 7: 42-65.

case, a, and a deaton. 2009. “health and wellbeing in udaipur and south africa.” in developments in economics of aging . chicago: university of chicago press.

deaton, a, and d lubotsky. 2009. “income inequality and mortality in the u.s. cities: weighing the evidence. a response to ash.” social science and medicine 68: 1914-1917.

tarozzi, a, and a deaton. 2009. “using census and survey data to estimate poverty and inequality for small areas.” review of economics and statistics 9 4: 773-792.

deaton, a. 2009. “instruments of development: randomization in the tropics, and the search for the elusive keys to economic development.” proceedings of the british academy, 2008 lectures 162: 123-160 .

deaton, a, and r arora. 2009. “life at the top: the benefits of height.” economics and human biology 7 2: 133-136.

2008

deaton, a. 2008. “income, health and wellbeing around the world: evidence from the gallup world poll.” journal of economic perspectives 22 2: 53-72.

deaton, a. 2008. “price trends in india and their implications for measuring poverty.” economic and political weekly 43 6: 43-49.

deaton, a. 2008. “stone, john richard nicholas 1913-1991.” in new palgrave dictionary of economics. hampshire, uk : palgrave-macmillan.

2007

deaton, a. 2007. “global patterns of income and health: facts, interpretations, and policies.” in wider annual lecture 10 . helsinki, finland .

bozzoli, c, a deaton, and c quintana-domeque. 2007. “child mortality, income, and adult height”.

deaton, a. 2007. “height, health and development.” proceedings of the national academy of sciences 104 33: 13232-13237.

2006

deaton, a. 2006. “purchasing power parity exchange rates for the poor: using household surveys to construct ppps”.

deaton, a. 2006. “measuring poverty.” in understanding poverty . oxford : oxford university press.

cutler, d, a deaton, and a lleras-muney. 2006. “the determinants of mortality.” journal of economic perspectives 20 3: 97-120 .

deaton, a. 2006. “the great escape: a review essay on fogel's the escape from hunger and premature death 1700-2100.” journal of economic literature 44 1: 106-114.

2005

case, a, and a deaton. 2005. “broken down by work and sex: how our health declines.” in analyses in the economics of aging . chicago : university of chicago press .

deaton, a, and v kozel. 2005. “data and dogma: the great indian poverty debate.” the world bank research observer 20 2: 177-200.

deaton, a. 2005. “franco modigliani and the life cycle theory of consumption.” banca nazionale del lavoro quarterly review 58 233-234: 91-107.

case, a, and a deaton. 2005. “health and wealth among the poor: india and south africa compared.” american economic review: papers and proceedings 95 2: 229-233.

deaton, a. 2005. “measuring poverty in a growing world or measuring growth in a poor world.” review of economic statistics 87 1: 1-19.

deaton, a, and a tarozzi. 2005. “prices and poverty in india.” in the great indian poverty debate. new delhi : macmillan.

2004

deaton, a, j friedman, and v alatas. 2004. “purchasing power parity exchange rates from household survey data: india and indonesia”.

deaton, a. 2004. “regional poverty estimates for india, 1999-2000”.

banerjee, a, a deaton, and e duflo. 2004. “health care delivery in rural rajasthan.” economic and political weekly 39 9: 944-949.

deaton, a. 2004. “health in an age of globalization.” in brookings trade forum. washington, dc: the brookings institute.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 2004. “mortality, income, and income inequality over time in britain and the united states.” in perspectives on the economics of aging . chicago : university of chicago press.

banerjee, a, a deaton, and e duflo. 2004. “wealth, health, and health services in rural rajasthan.” american economic review 94 2: 326-330 .

2003

deaton, a, and g laroque. 2003. “a model of commodity prices after sir arthur lewis.” journal of development economics 71 2: 289-310.

deaton, a. 2003. “adjusted indian poverty estimates for 1999-2000.” economic and political weekly 38 4: 322-326. pdf download

deaton, a, and c paxson. 2003. “engel's what? a response to gan and vernon.” journal of political economy 111 6: 1378-1381.

deaton, a. 2003. “health, inequality, and economic development.” journal of economic literature 41 1: 113-158 .

deaton, a. 2003. “household surveys, consumption, and the measurement of poverty.” economic systems research 15 2: 135-159.

deaton, a. 2003. “how to monitor poverty for the millenium development goals.” journal of human development 4 3: 353-378.

deaton, a, and d lubotsky. 2003. “mortality, inequality and race in american cities and states.” social science and medicine 56 6: 1139-1153.

deaton, a. 2003. “prices and poverty in india, 1987-2000.” economic and political weekly 38 4: 362-368.

2002

deaton, a, and a case. 2002. “consumption, health, gender and poverty”.

deaton, a, and s zaidi. 2002. “guidelines for constructing consumption aggregates for welfare analysis.” washington, dc : world bank .

deaton, a. 2002. “is world poverty falling?.” finance and development: a quarterly magazine 39 2.

deaton, a. 2002. “policy implications of the gradient of health and wealth.” health affairs 21 2: 13-30.

deaton, a, and j dréze. 2002. “poverty and inequality in india: a reexamination.” economic and political weekly 37 36: 3729-3748.

deaton, a, p gourinchas, and c paxson. 2002. “social security and inequality over the life cycle.” in the distributional effects of social security reform . chicago : chicago university press.

2001

deaton, a. 2001. “relative deprivation, inequality, and mortality”.

deaton, a. 2001. “counting the world's poor: problems and possible solutions.” the world bank research observer 16 2: 125-147.

deaton, a, and g laroque. 2001. “housing, land prices and growth.” journal of economic growth 6 2: 87-105.

deaton, a. 2001. “inequalities in income and inequalities in health.” in the causes and consequences of increasing inequality. chicago : university of chicago press.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 2001. “mortality, education, income and inequality among american cohorts.” in themes in the economics of aging. chicago : university of chicago press.

2000

deaton, a, and m grosh. 2000. “consumption.” in designing household survey questionnaires for developing countries: lessons from ten years of lsms experience. washington, dc: world bank.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 2000. “growth and saving among individuals and households previously named "saving and growth: another look at the cohort evidence".” review of economics and statistics 82 2: 212-225.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 2000. “growth, demographic structure and national saving in taiwan.” population and development review 26: 141-173.

1999

deaton, a, and a tarozzi. 1999. “prices and poverty in india”.

deaton, a. 1999. “commodity prices and growth in africa.” journal of economic perspectives 13 3: 23-40.

deaton, a. 1999. “saving and growth.” in the economics of saving and growth: theory, evidence and implications for policy . cambridge, uk : cambridge university press.

case, a, and a deaton. 1999. “school inputs and educational outcomes in south africa.” quarterly journal of economics 114 3: 1047-1084.

1998

deaton, a, and c paxson. 1998. “aging, saving and the welfare of the elderly in developing asia”.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 1998. “aging and inequality in income and health.” american economic review: papers and proceedings 88 2: 248-253.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 1998. “economies of scale, household size, and the demand for food.” journal of political economy 106 5: 897-930.

deaton, a. 1998. “getting prices right: what should be done?.” journal of economic perspectives 12 1: 37-46.

case, a, and a deaton. 1998. “large cash transfers to the elderly in south africa.” economic journal 108 450: 1330-1361.

deaton, a, and s ng. 1998. “parametric and non-parametric approaches to price and tax reform.” journal of the american statistical association 93 443: 900-909.

1997

deaton, a, and c paxson. 1997. “health, income, and inequality over the life-cycle”.

deaton, a. 1997. “poverty among children and the elderly in developing countries”.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 1997. “the effects of economic and population growth on national saving and inequality.” demography 34 1: 97-114.

1996

deaton, a, and e edwards. 1996. “measuring consumption and price in lsms surveys”.

deaton, a. 1996. “comment on "the effect of labor market rigidities on the labor force behavior of older workers".” in advances in the economics of aging. chicago : university of chicago press.

deaton, a, and g laroque. 1996. “competitive storage and commodity price dynamics.” journal of political economy 104 5: 896-923.

subramanian, s, and a deaton. 1996. “the demand for food and calories.” journal of political economy 104 1: 133-162.

1995

deaton, a. 1995. “international commodity prices, macroeconomic performance, and politics in sub-saharan africa.” princeton studies in international finance no. 79 .

deaton, a, and c paxson. 1995. “on urban versus rural poverty in india”.

deaton, a. 1995. “data and econometric tools for development analysis.” in handbook of development economics. amsterdam and new york : north-holland.

deaton, a, and g laroque. 1995. “estimating a nonlinear rational expectations commodity price model with unobservable state variables.” journal of applied econometrics 10: s9-40.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 1995. “saving, inequality and aging: an east asian perspective.” asia-pacific economic review 1 1: 7-19. pdf download

deaton, a. 1995. “the intertemporal allocation of consumption: theory and evidence: a comment.” carnegie-rochester conference series on public policy 42: 91-94.

1994

deaton, a, k parikh, and s subramanian. 1994. “food demand pattern and pricing policy in maharashtra: an analysis using household level survey data.” sarvekshana 17 4: 11-34.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 1994. “intertemporal choice and inequality.” journal of political economy 102 3: 437-467.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 1994. “saving, growth, and aging in taiwan.” in studies in the economics of aging. chicago : university of chicago press.

1993

deaton, a. 1993. “commodity prices and macroeconomic management in africa”.

benjamin, d, and a deaton. 1993. “household welfare and the pricing of cocoa and cofee in c?te d'ivoire: lessons from the living standards surveys.” world bank economic review 7 3: 293-318.

deaton, a. 1993. “john richard nicholas stone 1913-1991.” proceedings of the british academy 82: 475-492.

1992

deaton, a, and f grimard. 1992. “demand analysis for tax reform in pakistan.” living standards measurement study working paper no. 85.

deaton, a. 1992. “household saving in ldc's: credit markets, insurance, and welfare.” scandinavian journal of economics 94 2: 253-273.

deaton, a, and g laroque. 1992. “on the behaviour of commodity prices.” review of economic studies 59 1: 1-23.

deaton, a, and c paxson. 1992. “patterns of aging in thailand and c?te d'ivoire.” in topics in the economics of aging. chicago : university of chicago press.

deaton, a. 1992. “saving and income smoothing in c?te d'ivoire.” journal of african economies 1 1: 1-24.

1991

deaton, a, and g laroque. 1991. “estimating the commodity price model”.

subramanian, s, and a deaton. 1991. “gender effects in indian consumption patterns.” sarvekshana 14 4: 1-12.

deaton, a. 1991. “saving and liquidity constraints.” econometrica 59 4: 1221-1248.

1990

deaton, a. 1990. “on risk, insurance, and intra-village consumption smoothing”.

deaton, a. 1990. “price elasticities from survey data: extensions and indonesian results.” journal of econometrics 44: 281-309.

1989

deaton, a. 1989. “household survey data and pricing policies in developing countries formerly "new approaches to household survey data from developing countries".” world bank economic review 3 2: 183-210.

deaton, a. 1989. “looking for boy-girl discrimination in household expenditures.” world bank economic review 3 1: 1-15.

deaton, a. 1989. “rice prices and income distribution in thailand: a non-parametric analysis formerly "agricultural pricing policies and demand patterns in thailand".” economic journal 99 395: 1-37.

deaton, a. 1989. “saving in developing countries: theory and review.” world bank economic review, proceedings of the world bank annual conference on development economics, 61-96.

deaton, a, j ruiz-castillo, and d thomas. 1989. “the influence of household composition on household expenditure patterns: theory and spanish evidence.” journal of political economy 97 1: 179-200.

deaton, a, and jy campbell. 1989. “why is consumption so smooth?.” review of economic studies 56: 357-374.

1988

a.deaton,. 1988. “agricultural pricing policies and demand patterns in thailand”.

deaton, a. 1988. “income change and saving in the c?te d'ivoire”.

deaton, a. 1988. “quality, quantity and spatial variation of price.” american economic review 78: 418-430.

1987

a.deaton,. 1987. “econometric issues for tax design in developing countries.” in the theory of taxation for developing countries. washington, dc: world bank.

deaton, a. 1987. “estimation of own- and cross-price elasticities from survey data.” journal of econometrics 36: 7-30.

1986

deaton, a, o ashenfelter, and g solon. 1986. “collecting panel data in developing countries: does it make sense?.” living standard measurement study, working paper no. 23. washington, dc: world bank.

deaton, a. 1986. “consumers' expenditure.” discussion paper no. 126.

deaton, a. 1986. “demand analysis.” in handbook of econometrics. amsterdam and new york : new-holland.

deaton, a, and j muellbauer. 1986. “on measuring child costs in poor countries published under the title"on measuring child costs: with applications to poor countries".” journal of political economy 94: 720-744.

1985

deaton, a, m browning, and mj irish. 1985. “a profitable approach to labor supply and commodity demands over the life cycle.” econometrica 53 3: 503-543.

deaton, a. 1985. “panel data from time series of cross-sections.” journal of econometrics 30: 109-126.

deaton, a, and a blinder. 1985. “the time series consumption function revisited.” brookings papers on economic activity, no. 2: 465-521`.

1984

deaton, a. 1984. “household surveys as a data base for the analysis of optimality and disequilibrium.” sankhya, the indian journal of statistics - series b 46 2: 228-246.

deaton, a, and mj irish. 1984. “statistical models for zero expenditures in household budgets.” journal of public economics 23: 59-80.

1983

deaton, a. 1983. “an explicit solution to an optimal tax problem.” journal of public economics 20 3: 333-346.

1981

deaton, a. 1981. “three essays on a sri lanka household survey.” living standard measurement study working paper no. 11. washington, dc: the world bank.

deaton, a. 1981. “functional forms for labour supply and commodity demands with and without quantity restrictions.” econometrica 49 6: 1521-1532.

deaton, a. 1981. “optimal taxes and the structure of preferences.” econometrica 49 5: 1245-1260 .

1980

deaton, a, and j muellbauer. 1980. “an almost ideal demand system.” american economic review 70 3: 312-326.

deaton, a, and gb aneuryn-evans. 1980. “testing linear versus logarithmic regression models.” review of economic studies 47 1: 275-291.

1979

deaton, a, and nh stern. 1979. “optimally uniform commodity taxes, taste differences and lump-sum grants.” economic letters 20 3: 263-266.

deaton, a. 1979. “optimally uniform commodity taxes.” econometrics letters 2 4: 357-361.

deaton, a. 1979. “the distance function and consumer behaviour with applications to index numbers and optimal taxation.” review of economic studies 46 3: 391-405.

1978

deaton, a. 1978. “specification and testing in applied demand analysis.” economic journal 88 351: 524-536.

deaton, a, and mh pesaran. 1978. “testing non-nested non-linear regression models.” econometrica 46 3: 677-694.

1977

deaton, a. 1977. “equity, efficiency and the structure of indirect taxation.” journal of public economics 8 3: 299-312.

1975

deaton, a. 1975. “the measurement of income and price elasticities.” european economic review 7: 261-273.

1974

deaton, a. 1974. “a reconsideration of the empirical implications of additive preferences.” in economic journal - the quarterly journal of the royal economic society . london : macmillan.

deaton, a. 1974. “the analysis of consumer demand in the united kingdom 1900-1970.” econometrica 42 2: 341-367.

1972

deaton, a, and jac brown. 1972. “surveys in applied economics: models of consumer behaviour.” economic journal 82: 1145-1236.

1971

deaton, as, and kj wigley. 1971. “econometric models for the personal sector.” bulletin of the oxford university institute of economics and statistics 33 2: 81-91.

deaton, a. 1971. “wealth effects on consumption in a modified life-cycle model.” review of economic studies 39 4: 443-453.

 

(完)

 

 

(中国社会科学院经济研究所  王砚峰编译、整理、审校)